A Head-Mounted Display (HMD) is an output device (data glasses) that projects the VR experience onto the integrated display. It contains sensors that detect the position and movements of the head. The resolution, weight and field of view of the HMD are particularly important for an optimal experience.▸ Immersion
In the 360-degree shot, the viewer chooses where he wants to look through his head movements. There is no pre-defined image section compared to the traditional photo or film. Especially in combination with VR glasses, a stronger immersion into the action is possible.
Application examples for 360-degree recordings are panoramic shots of destinations, events, concerts and music videos.
The 360-degree image shows what can be captured by the "real" world through filming or photography. We have put together some examples for you in a YouTube channel.
In stereoscopic recording, the films have a depth effect; in monoscopic recording, the films act as a projection onto the inside of a sphere in the middle of which the user is located.
Augmented Reality (AR) means "extended reality". This is not, as with VR, a virtual world that hides real reality and replaces it with a generated reality, but rather an improvement and expansion of reality. With the help of AR glasses, the real world of the user is supplemented by virtually generated objects or additional information (videos, images).
Additional virtual content can be displayed on a smartphone or tablet display in addition to the real image – such as information on the places of interest in front of which the user is currently
standing – new piece of furniture can be placed in the real image of a room for viewing purposes - when playing football, circles or lines can be faded in to illustrate distances.
As far as AR glasses are concerned, all eyes are currently on the Microsoft HoloLens, which is still under development. With the HoloLens, which works wirelessly without a smartphone or additional computer, the direct environment is overlaid with graphical, seemingly holographic 3D objects with which the carrier can interact. The interaction is provided by a 3D sensor that detects the wearer's hand movements. The glasses are operated by gestures, speech, head and eye movements.
The term immersion means "embedding" or "plunging into" and describes the user's feeling of being part of the virtual world. The perception of one's own persona fades into the background. The user forgets the real world around him and dives completely into another environment. They feel they are in the middle of the event and are part of the action.
The stronger the persuasive power of the virtual environment on the viewer, the higher the immersion. The degree of the immersion effect depends on the VR glasses ( ▸ field of vision, refresh rate, motion detection, ▸ latency) and the VR application (design, story, resolution).
In addition, the possibility to interact with the virtual environment makes a higher immersion possible than, for example, when watching a film.
The term latency describes the delay between the movement of the head and the display of the movement on the screen. The lower the latency, in other words: The more precise and less frequent the transfer of head or hand movements into the virtual world, the higher the user's feeling of being part of the action.
If a certain latency value is exceeded and the latency is too high, the user may become nauseous.
▸ Motion sickness
Low latency depends on display quality, processing power, sensor sensitivity and maximum refresh rate.
Many users will become nauseous in virtual reality after some time, while others will be encouraged to continue for hours in the same situation.
Reasons for nausea include delays in the interaction between software and hardware, interaction possibilities, field of view, display resolution, refresh rate or the content of the application itself.
If the user feels cramped, he or she won’t be able to believe the situation. Too narrow viewing angles can make the user nauseous and cause ▸ Motion sickness
The larger the field of view, the more the user can have the feeling of a natural visual experience.
The HTC Vive provides the widest viewing angle from the eyeglasses shown under data glasses.
How the user's head, hand or body movements are transferred to virtual reality depends on the so-called tracking system. The more precise the tracking, the more credible the VR experience. The more delayed the tracking, the sooner nausea can be triggered in a user. ▸ Motion sickness
For tracking purposes, VR glasses contain sensors that measure acceleration, rotation and direction of view. External cameras also detect movements, such as hand and grip movements triggered by the controllers.